Posted by Lilly from D006153.N1.Vanderbilt.Edu (188.8.131.52) on Friday, November 29, 2002 at 4:02PM :
In Reply to: part III posted by Lilly from D006153.N1.Vanderbilt.Edu (184.108.40.206) on Friday, November 29, 2002 at 3:59PM :
51) On Indian-as-America symbolism, see Hugh Honour, The New Golden Land: European Images of America from the Discoveries to the Present Time (New York, 1975), 84-117, 138-60. See Vattel, Law of Nations, 336-37; and Grotius, De jure belli ac pacis, I, 139-63, II, 551. On views within the British military, see Stephen Conway, "'The Great Mischief Complain'd of': Reflections on the Misconduct of British Soldiers in the Revolutionary War," William and Mary Quarterly, 47 (July 1990), 378-79; Stephen Conway, "To Subdue America: British Army Officers and the Conduct of the Revolutionary War," William and Mary Quarterly, 43 (July 1986), 396-97; and Armstrong Starkey, "Paoli to Stony Point: Military Ethics and Weaponry during the American Revolution," Journal of Military History, 58 (Jan. 1994), 18. The "Bayonet & Torch" quotation is from Patrick Campbell to Alexander Campbell, July 8, 1778, Campbell of Barcaldine Muniments, G.D. 170/1711/17, S.R.O., quoted in Conway, "To Subdue America," 392. On "hard-liners," see ibid., 404-5; and Conway, "'The Great Mischief Complain'd of,'" 370-90. On Banastre Tarleton and Charles Grey, see Harold E. Selesky, "Colonial America," in The Laws of War: Constraints on Warfare in the Western World, ed. Michael Howard, George J. Andreopoulos, and Mark R. Shulman (New Haven, 1994), 80-83.
52) Selesky, "Colonial America," 81-83. On the poisoned musket balls, see Thomas Sullivan, "The Common British Soldier—From the Journal of Thomas Sullivan, 49th Regiment of Foot," ed. S. Sydney Bradford, Maryland Historical Magazine, 62 (Sept. 1967), 236. On Amherst, see Robert Middlekauff, The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789 (New York, 1982), 406.
53) In 1812 or 1813, when Indians around Astoria (at the mouth of the Columbia River) showed signs of hostility, the trader Duncan McDougall threatened to infect them with smallpox: "He assembled several of the chieftains, and showing them a small bottle, declared that it contained the small-pox; that although his force was weak in number, he was strong in medicine; and that in consequence of the treacherous cruelty of the northern Indians, he would open the bottle and send the small-pox among them. The chiefs strongly remonstrated against his doing so. They told him that they and their relations were always friendly to the white people; that they would remain so; that if the small-pox was once let out, it would run like fire among the good people as well as among the bad; and that it was inconsistent with justice to punish friends for the crimes committed by enemies. Mr. M'Dougall appeared to be convinced by these reasons, and promised, that if the white people were not attacked or robbed for the future, the fatal bottle should not be uncorked." Ross Cox, The Columbia River; or, Scenes and Adventures during a Residence of Six Years on the Western Side of the Rocky Mountains among Various Tribes of Indians Hitherto Unknown, ed. Edgar I. Stewart and Jane R. Stewart (1831; Norman, 1957), 169-70.
54) Robert R. Livingston to Francis Dana, Oct. 22, 1781 (reel 102, item 78, vol. 21, p. 99), Papers of the Continental Congress.
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